By the late 20th century, the recognition emerged that this system had largely run its course or that it was becoming obsolete and in need of some sort of reform. The main benefactors of this aging system—America, Europe, and Japan—fought each other in horrifically violent wars, which were called “world wars” because they involved the colonial spheres of influence of those powers, and which spanned the entire planet.
This paper begins by reviewing the history of modern universities, noting their changes in terms of societal demands and the availability of funding and with an eye toward understanding their different roles and new outcomes. Based on this understanding, the paper then raises questions about the relevance of curricula to the needs and concerns of our students, communities and societies.
The idea of "knowledge is power" has well served the Western world elite over the centuries, and some of the most brutal wars have been fought to protect its exclusivity. It still underwrites the international system of recolonization we are calling Western development. But this just makes it more difficult to see why Bacon's dictum is today splattered all over the mental environment.
أصل هذا الكتيب … رسالة بعث بها سيد رحمه الله إلى أخته أمينة قطب . وكانت مجلة الفكر التونسية قد نشرته في عددها السادس من السنة الرابعة ، آذار (( مارس )) 1959م بعنوان ( أضواء من بعيد ) ولما كثر الطلب على هذه الرسالة طلبنا الإذن من الأستاذ محمد قطب حفظه الله لإعادة نشرها فأذن لنا بذلك جزاه الله خيرا .1
Looking at the meaning of the greater occultation, the purpose that an occulted Imam [AS] may be said to fulfil. And certain peripheral modes of communication with the Imam [AS] even during the period of the greater occultation. With respect to the purpose of the Imam [AS], what purpose does he fulfil during the greater occultation? Two common metaphors are commonly adduced in explanation and justification of the greater occultation.1
Not surprisingly the greater occultation just like the lesser occultation precipitated a new crisis within the Shi’ah community, for an obvious reason that now very basic questions such as the utility - the very purpose of an Imam [AS] who is not simply inaccessible to the majority of his followers but no longer present on the physical plain, such basic questions came forward occasioning considerable doubt and hesitation both within and beyond the Shi’i community.1
When running through some of the different groups that existed among the Shi’ah after the death of the 11th Imam [AS] in the apparent absence of any physical offspring there were also the Qat’iyyah who stand at opposite extremes to the la adriyyah those people who contented themselves in saying we do not know what happened. The Qat’iyyah are those by contrast who are certain, Qat’iyyah meaning ‘those who profess certainty’.1
The 11th Imam [AS] had an offspring who after a relatively short period disappeared from the physical plain in what is called the occultation. Before considering the life and circumstances of the 11th Imam [AS] a few additional remarks can be made concerning the immediate background, the circumstances of the Shi’ah in general, the institution of the Imamate in particular in this period, the period of the 9th, 10th and 11th Imams [AS], the period leading up to the occultation.1
The cult for respect for the twelve Imams [AS] of Shi’ism is seen to be compatible with a polemical hostility to Shi’ism itself on certain occasions and with certain personalities. As late as the 19th century, there is a sufi when he arrived in Mashhad on his way to Kurdistan from India he composed two poems one in honour of Imam Ali al-Rida [AS], and one in condemnation of the Shi’i ‘Ulema of Mashhad without seeing any contradiction between these two, a complex and interesting topic.1
The life and legacy of the 8th Imam – Imam Ali al-Rida [AS]. As was always the case, the death of the preceding Imam [AS] Imam Musa al-Kazim [AS] was accompanied with a degree of uncertainty and division within the community about the identity of the successor. On this occasion however the disagreement and confusion was relatively minor and short lived, almost the entirety of the Shi’i community came to accept Imam Ali al-Rida [AS] as the 8th Imam [AS] and as the successor to Imam Musa al-Kazim [AS].1
Taqiyyah – prudential dissimulation, means concealing one’s identity as a Shi’ah under conditions thought to be dangerous, either for the Imam [AS] himself, for the Shi’i community as a whole or for one’s own person. The utility of this practise one may say was demonstrated in the short run by the Imams after Imam Jaffer al-Sadiq [AS]. Their fragile and hazardous position was made tenable in part by the practise of taqiyyah. However a problem arises, the observance of taqiyyah by the Imams themselves means that not all of their recorded utterances are to be taken as expressing their true opinions.1
Last time looked at Imam Jaffer al-Sadiq [AS] the sixth of the twelve Holy Imams [AS]. His accomplishments in general and then with particular regards to the development of Shi’ism. Broke off with the consideration of the doctrine of Nass – the insistence that each Imam [AS] must have been nominated by his predecessor – in a witnessed nomination and preferably set down in writing. This process was retrospectively claimed by Imam Jaffer al-Sadiq [AS] to have occurred with each of the Imams [AS], and if in the case of Imam Ali [AS] the First Imam [AS] this had not occurred then it is because of the denial of the request of the Prophet [sAW] on his deathbed that writing implements be brought forth in his presence. It may be assumed or it is assumed by Shi’i authors for him to dictate once again his intentions for Ali [AS] to succeed him as the Imam [AS].1
Imam Muhammad al-Baqir [AS] laid emphasis on the following factors – firstly his choice inherited from his father of political quietism, that is to say his refusal openly to contest rule by the Umayyads. And secondly as a corollary to that a growing emphasis upon the transmission of a unique body of knowledge as constituted the essence of the Imamate. Thirdly a clarification of specific details on which the emergent law of the Shi’ah community differentiated itself from the legal precepts of the surrounding Sunni Community, for example in the call to prayer the inclusion of ‘haya ‘ala khair al-‘aml’ ‘Hasten to the best of deeds’ included by Shi’ah Muslims but omitted by Sunni Muslims – it was Shi’ah belief that it was blocked by the second caliph ‘Umar.1
The period in question is the period three caliphs and his abstention from public or political involvement, and his tenure as the fourth of the rightly guided caliphs (from the Sunni point of view). The obstacles that confronted him - you could talk about the existence of a rival centre of power in Damascus under the auspice of Mu’awiyah, who using the assassination of Uthman the third caliph as a pretext now wished to deny legitimacy to Imam Ali [AS] and refused him his loyalty and his obedience.1
In the year 61 AH, 680 AD the martyrdom of Imam Husain [AS], grandson of the Prophet [sAW] and the third among the Imams [AS], took place. It was plain from the narrative elements that this was an extremely tragic event. In part it is the extremity of the atrocious death to which Imam Husain [AS], his companions and relatives were subjected that has anchored Karbala and the memory of Imam Husain [AS] in the Shi’i consciousness. Of course from one point of view it might be said that all of the Imams insofar as they had the quality of Imam are equal and no distinction is to be made among them, in the same way that the Quran tells us that an article of Islamic belief is not to make distinction among any of the messengers – to accept all of them with respect to their quality of Prophethood – not to affirm for one and deny for the other.1
Imam Husayn, the son of Imam Ali (a), was born on the 3rd of Sha'ban, 4AH (626 CE). Like his brother Hasan (a), the Imam was very close to his grandfather the Prophet (s), and resembled him in appeareance. His name was given to him by the Prophet, and is the dimunitive form of the Arabic 'Hasan'. The Prophet recited adhan in his ear at birth, and foretold the fated of the Imam at Karbala, calling him "Sayyid ash-Shuhada".1
After the Prophet [sAW] himself there is no other figure in Islamic History who has exercised the same comprehensive and lasting influence as Imam Ali [AS]. This can in part be seen from the duality of titles that one may be applied to him with respect to Sunni and Shi'ah tradition respectively. From the Sunni point of view he is the fourth among the rightly guided caliphs, from the Shi’ah point of view he is the first of he 12 Imams [AS], that in itself indicates that he holds an honoured position in the totality of Islamic tradition despite varying interpretations.1
The assumption of the caliphate by Imam Ali [AS] took place either on the same day Uthman was assassinated or according to another source some five days later. It would be useful in order to understand what transpires during the exercise of rule by Imam Ali [AS] to go back a little to examine the nature of the opposition to Uthman because many of the factors of political disunity that were operative during the caliphate of Uthman persisted into the caliphate of Imam Ali [AS].1
This is a look at that person that from the point of view of Shi’i Islam is the third from among the ma’sumin, the third of the presenters of the quality of inerrancy – ‘ismah which is shared by the Prophets and the Imams – Imam Ali bin Abi Talib [AS] the first of the Imams [AS]. Have spoken in the previous lecture looking at verses of the Quran which allude to him, also hadith of the Prophet [sAW] which indicate the special status of Ali [AS] as his successor, his successor as him [sAW] being the last of the Prophets. Today will look at his ascension, to power in the office of the caliphate.1
This lecture look at the Prophet [sAW], and his daughter Bibi Fatima [AS] who constitutes the link in between the Prophet [sAW] and the line of the Imams [AS]. Sometimes it has to be conceded that when an exposition is made of Shi’ism whether by it’s adherents or outsiders, inadequate attention is given to the person and the mission of the Prophet [sAW] only those intimate periods and aspects where the life of the Prophet [sAW] intersects decisively with the life of Imam Ali [AS] – only then is particular importance given to the Prophet [sAW]. However there is no doubt that the person and the accomplishment of the Prophet [sAW] is essential to the Shi’i historical consciousness as it is important to the consciousness of other Muslims.1